Brain & Body Power Max
Dr. Amen’s Convenient Daily Formula for even More Whole Brain/Whole Body Support
Brain & Body Power Max is recommended for those who are interested in a truly powerful dietary supplement for their brains. It provides your brain and the rest of your body with amino acids, vitamins, minerals, botanical extracts and neuro-nutrients – but at advanced levels.
This all-in-one supplement system makes it easy to stay healthy on the go with easy-to-carry packets for your purse or pocket. Each convenient daily packet contains the same supplements as Brain and Body Power, plus 2 additional capsules of Omega-3 Power and 2 additional capsules of Brain and Memory Power Boost.
Fifty vitamins, minerals and plant extracts (all in their most active forms) combine to give you the clinically-proven groundwork for your supplement regimen in NeuroVite Plus. NeuroVite Plus is also the only way to get Dr. Amen’s proprietary Brain Boosting Blend of brain-supporting nutrients.
Brain and Memory Power Boost
Dr. Daniel Amen’s bestselling brain-boosting formula will provide you with an all-star lineup of potent ingredients that support the brain’s energy, connectivity, and overall performance. This product is brain directed nutrition, grounded in solid basic and clinical science to support healthy brain and memory performance.
Healthy brains and hearts require plenty of omega-3’s to operate at peak performance, and Omega-3 Power is an easy way to get them! It provides a much higher potency than the typical fish oil product.
Similar to eating fresh fish, Omega-3 Power provides a higher amount of DHA than EPA. This highly concentrated Norwegian-sourced fish oil undergoes the most advanced purification process in the industry to ensure safety and potency.
Ingredients & Facts
NeuroVite Plus • Vitamins
This powerhouse vitamin is crucial for the intestinal tract, the eyes and vision, lungs, healthy fetal development and a powerful immune system. NeuroVite Plus omits beta-carotene, which some people have trouble converting to vitamin A.
Vitamin C is well known as a potent antioxidant that protects the body against “free radicals” and other toxins, helps the body conserve other antioxidants, and is fundamental to healthy immunity. But it is also an essential cofactor for enzymes that make neurotransmitters, conduct detoxification, and synthesize collagen for the gums, joints and other connective tissues of the body.
Superior to D2, vitamin D3 is called the “sunshine vitamin” because the skin can make it. Unfortunately many people aren’t getting enough sunshine and vitamin D deficiency is widespread here and around the world. The body transforms it into a powerful hormone for the brain, heart, circulation, immune system and other organs as well as for bone strength. This supplement provides a generous allowance of D3 to help ensure its numerous essential uses throughout the body.
Vitamin E is the major antioxidant protector for cell membranes – where our most dynamic enzyme assemblies are located. This supplement provides the full spectrum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol vitamin Es present in a healthy diet.
NeuroVite Plus contains vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), the most potent K vitamin. Beyond its importance for the healthy processes of blood coagulation, K2 is absolutely required for cementing calcium into bone and for keeping calcium appropriately low in the body’s soft tissues.
Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
Vitamin B1 is essential for the body to make energy and metabolize amino acids and blood sugars. Thiamin is especially important for managing dietary carbohydrates, which are linked to “high-calorie malnutrition.”
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin is an essential cofactor for various enzymes that produce energy. Our cells also need it to maintain their DNA and to regulate healthy gene activity. Riboflavin is also essential for an enzyme that maintains glutathione, the body’s master antioxidant.
Niacinamide is a fully active form of Vitamin B3 that does not cause the uncomfortable niacin skin flush. Niacinamide is centrally involved in the generation of energy by mitochondria, our cells’ energy generators. This vitamin is easily depleted by excessive alcohol intake and by smoking.
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
Pantothenic acid is essential for our cells to produce coenzyme A, which they need to make amino acids, proteins and hormones, metabolize fats into useful fatty acids, and to build cell membranes. Freezing, canning, and refining deplete this vitamin from foods.
Vitamin B6, as pyridoxine and pyridoxal-5-phosphate, is essential for at least 100 enzymes that help the body utilize amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. It is vital for early brain development and the actions of various neurotransmitters, as well as for supporting the body’s innate antioxidant defenses.
Folate as methylfolate (methyltetrahydrofolate or MTHF) is the most active form of this vitamin. MTHF supplies methyl groups, which our cells need for making and repairing DNA, and for regulating DNA activity within our genes. The brain specifically requires MTHF to make neurotransmitters, the myelin insulation for nerve cells, and the sleep hormone melatonin. MTHF helps recycle the metabolic product homocysteine to prevent it from building up to toxic levels. A common gene mutation (C677T) impairs the body’s capacity to convert food folates or folic acid into MTHF.. By directly providing MTHF, NeuroVite Plus avoids the limitations of the many products that carry synthetic folic acid. MTHF does what folic acid cannot do: bypass the metabolic roadblock imposed by C677T.
Vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin or methyl-B12, is required along with MTHF by key enzymes that manage methyl metabolism and recycle homocysteine. Methyl-B12 is fully activated and is superior to cyano-B12 (cyano-cobalamin), which contains potentially harmful cyanide and is found in many multivitamins. The high level of methyl-B12 in this formula helps ensure its efficient delivery to the tissues.
This B vitamin is also vital for DNA structure and for healthy gene activity, besides being essential for energy. Biotin is actually built into the structure of several enzymes that our cells’ energy generators (the mitochondria) use to make energy. Biotin deficiency is relatively common in the U.S. population.
NeuroVite Plus • Essential Minerals
Calcium and Magnesium
These two minerals have a “yin-yang” relationship, each helping balance the actions of the other. Magnesium is required by at least 300 energy enzymes, yet almost half of all Americans may be deficient in this mineral.
Iodine is essential for the thyroid hormones that help set the pace of our metabolism and overall activity level.
Zinc is essential for DNA integrity, the “front-line” antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, prenatal and postnatal childhood development, sexual maturation, behavior, immunity, skin quality, and hair renewal.
Copper works with zinc in the superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme, and is essential for the brain to make neurotransmitters, as well as for a healthy circulation.
Selenium is required by at least 25 enzymes and other “selenium proteins.” Among these are the glutathione peroxidase enzymes that defend against free radicals, and a variety of other enzymes that sensitively regulate gene activity, thyroid hormone production, protein synthesis, cell-to-cell communication, muscle development, and immunity.
This mineral is essential for one of the superoxide dismutase enzymes, located within the mitochondria to neutralize oxygen free radicals as they are generated. Manganese is also needed for the metabolism of cholesterol, carbohydrates, and amino acids, and to produce bone matrix components called proteoglycans.
Chromium is essential for healthy blood sugar metabolism. This supplement provides the picolinate form, which is very well absorbed, helps in coping with carbohydrate cravings, and supports healthy mood management.
NeuroVite Plus provides a generous allowance of this mineral, which is required by at least 5 detoxification enzymes, especially to neutralize sulfites and bisulfites, potentially toxic substances that are generated by the body’s normal sulfur metabolism. Sulfites and bisulfites are common environmental pollutants and are often sprayed onto foods and added into wines, vinegars, even into medical products as preservatives.
NeuroVite Plus • Other Nutrients
This vitamin-like essential nutrient supports the body’s production of acetylcholine, our most abundant nerve transmitter. It also supplies methyl groups for healthy DNA gene regulation, and is crucial for healthy liver function.
Lutein and Zeaxanthin
These two vitamin-like carotenoid antioxidants are necessary for vision and eye health. Recent clinical studies suggest they also contribute to healthy brain function.
Resveratrol is under intensive research and is known to promote healthy heart muscle function. Pterostilbene is chemically related to resveratrol and supports circulatory health.
Hesperidin Flavonoid Complex
This complex provides powerful antioxidants known to protect the delicate blood vessel walls.
Boron supports cell energetics, especially for bone, joint and brain health.
Silicon supports healthy bone and connective tissue renewal and may also be required for healthy immune response.
Fruit and Vegetable Blend
Dr. Amen created this proprietary blend to help ensure his patients receive the antioxidant and other, diverse biochemical benefits of plant nutrients (phytonutrients). This unique blend includes concentrates of wild blueberries, broccoli sprouts, tomatoes, spinach, acai, carrots, strawberries, and alfalfa sprouts.
Proprietary Brain Boosting Blend
Dr. Amen developed this potent blend to further promote optimal brain function and help the aging brain.
PhosphatidylSerine (PS), the brain nutrient best documented for improving memory, is most abundant in the trillions of synapses where the brain’s nerve cells interconnect.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) fuels energy generation by the mitochondria, but also supplies acetyl groups that help the brain make the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ALC and its acetyl groups are also used by brain cells to help regulate their gene activity.
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a major energy cofactor, naturally built into the structure of three key energy enzymes that are very active in the brain cells but also active in every other cell of the body. ALA is also a powerful antioxidant.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential cofactor for energy generation in the body, via the mitochondria’s electron transfer enzymes. These are constantly at work in all our cells but are most active in the brain to supply its huge energy demands.
Digestive Enzyme Blend
Dr. Amen put together this full spectrum of digestive enzyme support with Lipase, Amylase, Lactase, Cellulase and Protease to help keep our digestive and other gut functions healthy.
EPA (EicosaPentaenoic Acid)
Each 2-softgel serving of Omega 3 Power delivers 860 mg of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA, which is present in the membrane systems of all our cells. Good EPA status is especially linked to healthy mood management. EPA is also the source of a number of messenger substances called eicosanoids (previously known as prostaglandins) that travel around the body and help regulate healthy cell, tissue and organ functions.
DHA (DocosaHexaenoic Acid)
Each 2-softgel serving of Omega 3 Power delivers 580 mg of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, also present in the membranes of all our cells but occurring most concentrated in the brain and retina of the eye. Good DHA status is closely linked to healthy memory and other cognitive functions. DHA is also a major source of eicosanoids and other messenger substances that regulate a variety of important life functions.
DHA is a highly important molecular building block for all human cells. It is a major contributor to the fluid state of cell membranes, which generally is associated with efficient functioning of our cells. DHA is also abundant at the synapses where nerve cells connect with each other and sometimes with other cell types.
Brain and Memory Power Boost
This universal building block for cell membranes is most concentrated in the brain, especially in the synapses that connect the nerve cells into information transfer networks. PS is also important for the membranes that make mitochondria, the cell’s energy generators. PS is extensively researched, with 38 double-blind clinical trials and hundreds of other human studies.
• Supports healthy memory, learning, other cognitive functions
• Improves attention, including in children
• Enhances coping with stress, including in young adults
• Helps maintains nerve cell membrane fluidity and specialized functions
• Facilitates nerve growth factor actions, which supports nerve cell renewal.
This amino acid is naturally produced in the body and has fundamental importance in energy production as well as for gene, enzyme and neurotransmitter functions.• Important for the brain to make energy, helping protect against mental fatigue
• Promotes health functioning of the entire nervous system, particularly in the elderly
• Enhances mood as established from extensive clinical research
• Facilitates and helps regulate acetylcholine neurotransmitter action in the brain
• Major source of acetyl groups that help regulate gene activity.
As your hardworking brain consumes large amounts of oxygen it generates oxygen free radicals that need to be tightly controlled. Numerous human studies show that NAC provides powerful antioxidant defense against free radicals. NAC also enhances the electrochemical (“redox”) balance within the nerve cells, helping maintain optimal conditions for their metabolic and neurotransmitter activities.• Extensively researched anti-toxin and antioxidant regulator
• Supports healthy cognition and mood
• Increases ability to cope with cravings
• Enhances coping with behavioral challenges
• Helps the brain and body conserve glutathione, a master antioxidant.
A vitamin-like nutrient that’s vital to cellular energy production, alpha lipoic acid works within your cell mitochondria to generate energy. It’s also a potent antioxidant.• Protects against cell damage
• Safeguards nerve cell integrity
• Balances blood sugar levels
• Supports cell mitochondria and energy production.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract
This popular and effective plant extract supports healthy blood flow, which is critical to optimal brain function. Your brain needs at least 20% of your blood flow when at rest, even more when it is fully mentally engaged. Clinical research suggests Ginkgo may work better when combined with PS.• Promotes healthy structure and functioning of blood vessels
• Helps ensure reliable and sufficient blood flow to the brain
• Very powerful antioxidant properties.
Works with Ginkgo to promote healthy blood flow to the brain and body.• Supports healthy brain blood flow, particularly via the brain’s small blood vessels
• Enhances blood vessel tone, allowing for flexible blood delivery to the brain
• Used in combination with Ginkgo, can improve information processing speed
• Has protective effects on nerve cells and the brain tissue.
Extracted from Huperzia serrata (club moss), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, this substance improves the actions of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter system, which plays a central role in memory and behavior.• Supports healthy memory and behavior in older persons
• Supports energy generation by the nerve cell mitochondria
• Provides antioxidant and other protective effects
• Facilitates nerve growth factor, which supports nerve cell renewal.
|Serving Size 4 Capsules
Servings Per Container 30
|Amount Per Serving||%DV|
|Vitamin A (as retinyl palmitate)||5000 IU||100%|
|Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)||200 mg||333%|
|Vitamin D (as D3, cholecalciferol)||2000 IU||500%|
|Vitamin E (as d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate)||30 IU||100%|
|Vitamin K (as K2, menaquinone-7, MK-7)||45 mcg||56%|
|Thiamin (Vitamin B1) (as thiamin HCI)||50 mg||3333%|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)||50 mg||2941%|
|Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)||50 mg||250%|
|Vitamin B5 (as d-calcium pantothenate)||50 mg||500%|
|Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine HCI and
|Folate (as Quatrefolic® methylfolate,
5-methyltetrahydrofolate, glucosamine salt)
|Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)||500 mcg||8333%|
|Biotin (d-biotin)||500 mcg||167%|
|Pantothenic acid (as d-calcium pantothenate)||50 mg||500%|
|Calcium (as pantothenate, citrate)||20 mg||2%|
|Iodine (as potassium iodide)||75 mcg||50%|
|Magnesium (as glycinate and malate)||50 mg||12%|
|Zinc (as glycinate)||20 mg||133%|
|Selenium (as SelenoExcell® yeast)||200 mcg||286%|
|Copper (as glycinate)||500 mcg||25%|
|Manganese (as glycinate)||5 mg||250%|
|Chromium (as picolinate)||200 mcg||167%|
|Molybdenum (as sodium molybdate)||50 mcg||67%|
|High-gamma mixed tocopherols
|Choline (as bitartrate)||25 mg||†|
|Boron (as glycinate)||1.5 mg||†|
|Silicon (as horsetail extract)||3 mg||†|
|Lutein, carotenoid||3 mg||†|
|Zeaxanthin, carotenoid||300 mcg||†|
|Hesperidin flavonoid complex||20 mg||†|
|Resveratrol (as trans-resveratrol)||10 mg||†|
|Pterostilbene (as pTeroPure™ trans-pterostilbene)||20 mcg||†|
|Fruit & Vegetable Blend
(wild blueberries, broccoli sprouts, tomato, spinach, acai, carrot, strawberry,
|Proprietary Brain Boosting Blend
(acetylcarnitine, alpha-lipoic acid,
phosphatidylserine/PS, coenzyme Q10/CoQ)
|Digestive Enzyme Blend
(lipase, amylase, lactase, cellulose, protease)
|†Daily Value (DV) not established.|
Vegetable cellulose (capsule), microcrystalline cellulose, spirulina extract (for color), magnesium stearate.
Free from milk/dairy, gluten, wheat, eggs, corn, sugars, or artificial coloring or flavoring.
|Serving Size 4 Softgels
Servings Per Container 30
|Amount Per Serving||% DV *|
|Calories from Fat||45|
|Total Fat||5 g||8%*|
|Polyunsaturated Fat||4 g|||
|Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Total||3.2 g|||
|EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)||1.72 g|||
|DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)||1.16 g|||
|Other Omega-3 Fatty Acids||320 mg|||
|* Percent Daily Value is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Daily Value (DV) not established.
|Other Ingredients: Highly Refined and Concentrated Omega-3 Fish Oil (anchovy, sardine, mackerel), Capsule Shell (gelatin, glycerin, purified water), Natural Lemon/Lime Flavor, Proprietary Antioxidant Blend (consisting of natural tocopherols (soy), rosemary extract, and ascorbyl palmitate).|
|Brain and Memory Power Boost
|Serving Size 6 Capsules
Servings Per Container 30
|Amount Per Serving||% DV|
(as acetyl-l-carnitine HCI)
|N-AcetylCysteine (NAC)||600 mg||†|
|Alpha-Lipoic Acid||300 mg||†|
|Ginkgo Biloba extract,
24/6 (PureLeaf™) (Ginkgo Biloba, leaf)
|Huperzine A||150 mcg||†|
|† Daily Value (DV) not established.|
|Other Ingredients: Vegetable cellulose (vegetarian capsule), microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide.
Free from milk/dairy, gluten, wheat, yeast, eggs, corn, artificial colors or flavoring.
CAUTION: This product is not recommended for pregnant or lactating women, nor for individuals taking anticoagulant medications or suffering from heart disease.
Dr. Amen talks about Brain & Body Power MAX
Greater brain support, backed by science
NeuroVite Plus • Vitamins
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient with roles in supporting the immune system and brain development. Its metabolite is important cognition, behavior and neuroplasticity.
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is required for over 300 metabolic functions in the body, including tissue growth and repair and adrenal function. It stimulates procollagen formation, enhances collagen synthesis, and stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteoblast formation. Vitamin C’s antioxidant activity diminishes lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and oxidative protein damage. It has been shown to reduce levels of low density lipoproteins and increase high density lipoproteins, which may aid in preventing atherosclerosis. Vitamin C can prevent the formation of carcinogens in foods and in the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin C is required for enzyme reactions that produce the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine and is essential for the synthesis of carnitine which is required for the transport of fat to the mitochondria for the production of energy. Vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids which may contribute to healthy blood cholesterol levels or prevent formation of gall stones. It is an essential co-factor in processes that underlie neural maturation, neuroprotection and neurotransmission. Vitamin C is effective at removing lead, arsenic and cadmium and is important in detoxifying the body.
Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by regulating bone resorption, affecting absorption of calcium in the gut, and by regulating calcium losses in urine. In the kidney, vitamin D works with estrogen to regulate renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus. In bones, vitamin D works in conjunction with parathyroid hormone to regulate the release of calcium and phosphorus from the bones into the bloodstream. Vitamin D also regulates the gene coding for synthesis of a calcium binding protein known as calbindin, which participates in calcium transport. The generic roles of vitamin D have been confirmed in over 50 genes extending beyond balancing mineral metabolism. Vitamin D has also been shown to bind to receptors the prostate, liver, thyroid, and brain. Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with cognitive impairment in older adults1 and higher vitamin D intake has been associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in older women.2 Vitamin D also has potent immune system modulating effects.3
- Peterson A, Mattek N, Clemons A, et al. Serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with falling and cognitive function in older adults. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. Oct 2012;16(10):898-901.
- Annweiler C, Rolland Y, Schott AM, et al. Higher vitamin D dietary intake is associated with lower risk of alzheimer's disease: a 7-year follow-up. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. Nov 2012;67(11):1205-1211.
- Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Vitamin D and immune function. Nutrients. Jul 2013;5(7):2502-2521.
Vitamin E is a vital antioxidant. It protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation by destroying peroxyl radicals. It also improves circulation, aids tissue repair, promotes normal blood clotting, maintains healthy nerves and muscle and strengthens capillary walls. Vitamin E is also known to inhibit the activity of protein kinase C, as well as to affect the expression and activity of immune and inflammatory cells. Vitamin E may be involved in signal transduction in neuronal cells since it is associated with neuronal cell membranes and other lipids in the nervous system. Vitamin E intake in combination with vitamin B6 and B12 was associated with better performance on visuospatial recall and abstraction tests in normally aging older participants (<60 years) in a 6 year longitudinal study.1
- La Rue A, Koehler KM, Wayne SJ, Chiulli SJ, Haaland KY, Garry PJ. Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment. Am J Clin Nutr. Jan 1997;65(1):20-29.
Vitamin K is required for the production of prothrombin, which is essential for blood clotting. It is also critical for bone formation and repair. There are three forms of Vitamin K, which are dependent on their source. Vitamin K1 is derived from plants, Vitamin K2 is synthesized by microflora in the small and large intestine and Vitamin K3 is synthetic. Vitamin K2 has been shown in vitro and in vivo to inhibit bone resorption substances such as prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-6 and to enhance human osteoblast-induced mineralization.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Thiamine enhances circulation and is important in blood formation, carbohydrate metabolism and the production of hydrochloric acid, which aids in digestion. Thiamine is important in reactions that are involved in the synthesis of nucleotides, DNA, RNA, and NADPH. Thiamine has an important function in nerve membranes and in nerve conduction, although the mechanism is unclear. Thiamine also acts as an antioxidant, protecting the cells from aging. Thiamine turns glucose into energy. Thiamine supplementation has been associated with having greater energy, faster reaction times and improved mental clarity.1,2
- Benton D, Donohoe RT. The effects of nutrients on mood. Public health nutrition. Sep 1999;2(3A):403-409.
- Benton D, Griffiths R, Haller J. Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology. Jan 1997;129(1):66-71.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin is necessary for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cellular respiration and growth. It is needed for the uptake of oxygen in body as well as the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan, which is converted to niacin in the body.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)
Niacin is needed for proper circulation and healthy skin. It supports the functioning of the nervous system. It aids in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Niacin also lowers cholesterol and has been shown to enhance memory. Niacin taken daily has been shown to improve memory in both young and old individuals.1
- Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease and of cognitive decline. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Aug 2004;75(8):1093-1099.
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
Pantothenic acid is important in the production of adrenal hormones, the formation of antibodies and plays a role in the conversion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins into energy.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin essential in the metabolic pathways of amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids and is a cofactor in the production of neurotransmitters including serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and GABA. It is required by the nervous system and is needed for normal brain function as well as DNA synthesis. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 alone and in combination with other nutrients has been shown to be helpful to improve attention in children.1-4
- Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, Pradal-Prat D, Rapin J, Bali JP. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. I. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. Mar 2006;19(1):46-52.
- Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Rapin J, Bali JP. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. J Am Coll Nutr. Oct 2004;23(5):545S-548S.
- Kidd PM. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Oct 2000;5(5):402-428.
- Coleman M, Steinberg G, Tippett J, et al. A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: a double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Biol Psychiatry. Oct 1979;14(5):741-751.
Folic acid is essential for energy production and the formation of red and white blood cells. The biological functions of folate all stem from the roles of folate coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism. Folate coenzymes mediate transfer of one carbon units (methyl or methylene groups) in biochemical reactions. Folate coenzymes are essential for nucleic acid metabolism in the synthesis of DNA and synthesis of methionine. Methionine is required for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor used in methylation reactions including methylation of DNA and RNA. Methylation of DNA is essential for normal development and may impact transcription of genes.
Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. It aids folic acid in the regulation and formation of red blood cells and helps in the utilization of iron. It is required for the synthesis of protein and the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase and L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Methionine synthase catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Methionine is required for the formation of S-adenosylmethionine, a universal methyl donor for almost 100 different substrates, including DNA, RNA, hormones, proteins, and lipids. L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA in the degradation of propionate, an essential biochemical reaction in fat and protein metabolism. Succinyl-CoA is also required for hemoglobin synthesis.
Biotin is a member of the vitamin B complex family and is a cofactor in four carboxylase enzymes located in the brain, kidney, heart and liver. These biotin-dependent enzymes aids in cell growth, fatty acid production and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Biotin promotes healthy sweat glands, nerve tissue and bone marrow. Biotin is stored in the mitochondria, and that it acts as a coenzyme in bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation reactions.
NeuroVite Plus • Essential Minerals
Calcium is vital for the formation of strong bones and teeth and the maintenance of healthy gums. It is present in blood, extracellular fluid, muscle, and other tissues. It is essential for nerve transmission, muscle contraction, vascular contraction, vasodilation, glandular secretion, cell membrane and capillary permeability, enzyme reactions, respiration, renal function, and blood coagulation. It also plays a role in neurotransmitter and hormone release and storage, uptake and binding of amino acids, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption, and gastrin secretion.
Magnesium is a mineral essential in a variety of cellular processes including cellular respiration, protein synthesis, membrane stability, regulation of vascular tone and is important in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems.1 More than 300 enzyme systems use magnesium as a cofactor. As magnesium is required for stabilization of the nerve cell, chronic deficiencies can interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses, resulting in irritability and restlessness. Supplementing the body with magnesium can reduce inflammation2 and promote relaxation and calm.
- Swaminathan R. Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. The Clinical biochemist. Reviews / Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists. May 2003;24(2):47-66.
- Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng H. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. Dec 2010;23(4):158-168.
Iodine’s major function in the body is its role in the formation of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones stimulate basal rate of metabolism, oxygen consumption and heat production. They are necessary for normal nervous system development and linear growth. Most organ systems are directly or indirectly under the influence of thyroid hormones.
Zinc plays a role in many aspects of health, probably due to its essential role in over 200 enzyme reactions.1 The functions of zinc support normal growth and development throughout life but especially during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Zinc is a structural component of many proteins, hormones, hormone receptors and neuropeptides2 and is involved in protein, DNA, and RNA synthesis, as well as in cell division. It is required for protein synthesis and collagen formation. Zinc promotes a healthy immune system and is involved in wound healing. Zinc is a constituent of insulin and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase. Zinc is an effective detoxifier, lowering levels of lead and cadmium in the body.
- 1. Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M. The influence of micronutrients on cognitive function and performance. The Journal of international medical research. Jan-Feb 2007;35(1):1-19.
- Fabris N, Mocchegiani E. Zinc, human diseases and aging. Aging (Milano). Apr 1995;7(2):77-93.
Copper has an essential role in the biochemistry of living organisms. It is required for normal infant development, red and white blood cell maturation, iron transport, bone strength, cholesterol metabolism, myocardial contractility, glucose metabolism, brain development, immune function and protection against oxidative stress.
Most selenium-containing proteins (selenoprotein) have enzymatic functions. Selenium is best known for its role in the glutathione peroxidase enzyme system, one of the most vital antioxidant defense systems in the body. Selenium’s effects are enhanced in the presence of vitamin E. Selenium antagonizes the effects of toxic metals such as cadmium, arsenic and mercury. The selenoprotein iodothyronine deiodinase is required for synthesis of thyroid hormone.
Manganese is required for bone growth and is involved in the formation of cartilage and synovial fluid of the joints. It is essential in protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganese functions, like other trace elements, as an enzyme activator and as a constituent of metalloenzymes. Manganese is the preferred metal cofactor for glycosyltransferases. These are important in the synthesis of glycoproteins which help in synthesis of myelin and clotting factors.
Chromium is involved in the metabolism of glucose and facilitates glucose transport from blood into the cells of various tissues. It is vital in the synthesis of cholesterol, fats and proteins. This mineral maintains stable blood sugar levels through proper insulin utilization. Chromium may stabilize nucleic acids (mainly RNA) against structural distortions and may stimulate synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver. Chromium chelated with picolinate enables chromium to enter the body’s cells more readily, allowing insulin to function more effectively.
Molybdenum functions mainly as an enzyme cofactor. It is an essential mineral required in small amounts for nitrogen metabolism. It is also important in bone growth and maintaining strong teeth. It promotes normal cell function, aids in the activation of enzymes and is a component of the metabolic enzyme xanthine oxidase.
NeuroVite Plus • Other Nutrients
Choline is needed for the proper transmission of nerve impulses in addition to gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin formation. Choline is important in maintaining the structural integrity of cell membranes and for cholinergic neurotransmission. It also functions as a methyl donor for the synthesis of many endogenous compounds. Choline has been shown to be helpful in improving cognitive performance in a young, cognitively healthy, community-based population of 1,391 subjects.1
- Poly C, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, et al. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. Dec 2011;94(6):1584-1591.
Lutein is a xanthophyll carotenoid found concentrated in the macula of the eye, where vision occurs. In antioxidant that inhibits lipid peroxidation and keeps eyes safe from oxidative stress, which helps in the protection of ocular function and prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Zeaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid that is contained within the retina of the eye and helps in the protection of ocular function.
Resveratrol is a member of a group of plant compounds called polyphenols. Resveratrol has been shown to have antioxidant properties, protecting the body against the type of damage linked to cancer and heart disease. Resveratrol is found in the skin of red grapes, but other sources include peanuts and berries. Resveratrol may protect nerve cells from damage and the buildup of plaque that can lead to Alzheimer's.1 Resveratrol helps to prevent insulin resistance, a condition in which the body becomes less sensitive to the effects of the blood sugar-lowering hormone, insulin.2
- Joseph JA, Fisher DR, Cheng V, Rimando AM, Shukitt-Hale B. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Nov 26 2008;56(22):10544-10551.
- Szkudelski T, Szkudelska K. Anti-diabetic effects of resveratrol. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Jan 2011;1215:34-39.
Hesperidin flavonoid complex
Hesperidin is a plant chemical that is classified as a bioflavonoid. The human body cannot produce bioflavonoids, they must be supplied in the diet. Bioflavonoids act synergistically with Vitamin C to protect and preserve the capillaries. They also have an antibacterial effect and promote circulation.
Boron is a mineral needed in trace amounts for healthy bones and muscle growth. It also aids in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorous and magnesium. It enhances brain function, promotes alertness and aids the body in utilizing energy from fats and sugars.
Silicon is needed for the formation of collagen for bones and connective tissue. It helps produce healthy skin, hair and nails. It is also needed to maintain the flexibility in arteries, helping to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Fruit and Vegetable Blend
This blend was added to provide fruit and plant-based sources of phytochemicals to promote health, improve brain vitality and enhance immune function. Alfalfa sprouts and broccoli contain superoxide dismutase, an important metabolic enzyme with potent antioxidant properties. Carrots, broccoli, tomatoes, wild blueberries, strawberries and acai contain a variety of carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanidins, which are efficient free-radical scavengers. Evidence in the scientific literature shows that consistent, long-term, consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with delayed cognitive decline,1-3 so this unique blend was included in Neurovite Plus to provide this essential nutrient support.
- Devore EE, Kang JH, Breteler MM, Grodstein F. Dietary intakes of berries and flavonoids in relation to cognitive decline. Ann Neurol. Jul 2012;72(1):135-143.
- Kang JH, Ascherio A, Grodstein F. Fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive decline in aging women. Ann Neurol. May 2005;57(5):713-720.
- Loef M, Walach H. Fruit, vegetables and prevention of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review of cohort studies. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. Jul 2012;16(7):626-630.
Proprietary Brain Boosting Blend
This combination of brain directed nutrients including acetyl-l-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, Phosphatidyl serine and Coenzyme Q10 were included to help support mitochondrial function, antioxidant levels, healthy blood sugar regulation, proper cell membrane maintenance and assist in the generation of cellular energy.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a fat-soluble phospholipid that is an essential component of cell membranes. It is the most abundant phospholipid in the brain and is important in neuronal membrane function including maintaining the cellular environment, signal transduction, vesicle release, cell-cell communication and cell growth regulation. PS is located in the inner layer of cellular membranes and has a variety of structural and functional roles including cell membrane fluidity, modulation of cellular receptors and production and packaging of neurotransmitters including norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin. Several placebo-controlled clinical research trials demonstrate that PS is effective at improving learning, memory and concentration.1-5
- Kidd PM. Phosphatidylserine; Membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern. Med Rev. 1996;1:70-84.
- Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, Fiori MG, Crepaldi G. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano). Apr 1993;5(2):123-133.
- Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology bulletin. 1992;28(1):61-66.
- Klinkhammer P, Szelies B, Heiss W-D. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia. 1990;1:197-201.
- Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacology bulletin. 1988;24(1):130-134.
ALC is a natural compound essential for normal mitochondrial function. It facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, promoting enhanced cellular energy production. This dietary antioxidant functions to improve free radical scavenging as well as inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways which maintains and repairs neuronal damage.1 It is also thought to influence the cholinergic system by promoting the synthesis and release of acetylcholine. Clinical trials demonstrate the ability of ALC as monotherapy2-4 or in combination with targeted nutrients5,6 to support cognition and mood in healthy patients7 as well as those with cognitive decline.3,4,7
- McDaniel MA, Maier SF, Einstein GO. "Brain-specific" nutrients: a memory cure? Nutrition. Nov-Dec 2003;19(11-12):957-975.
- Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. Mar 2003;18(2):61-71.
- Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. Sep 1996;47(3):705-711.
- Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs under experimental and clinical research. 1994;20(4):169-176.
- Remington R, Bechtel C, Larsen D, et al. A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial of a Nutritional Formulation for Cognition and Mood in Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(2):395-405.
- Chan A, Remington R, Kotyla E, Lepore A, Zemianek J, Shea TB. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. Mar 2010;14(3):224-230.
- Brooks JO, 3rd, Yesavage JA, Carta A, Bravi D. Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach. Int Psychogeriatr. Jun 1998;10(2):193-203.
Alpha lipoic acid is a compound found in the mitochondria of cells that is important in energy production. Supplemental ALA has a powerful antioxidant capacity1,2 and has been found to increase the cellular uptake of glucose,3 making it an important regulator of blood sugar levels. ALA is both water and fat soluble and can regenerate endogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and glutathione, chelation of metal ions and repair of oxidatively damaged proteins.1,4,5 Preliminary evidence suggests that the neuroprotective properties of alpha-lipoic acid slowed cognitive decline in those with age related cognitive decline.6,7
- Bast A, Haenen GR. Lipoic acid: a multifunctional antioxidant. Biofactors. 2003;17(1-4):207-213.
- Kishi Y, Schmelzer JD, Yao JK, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid: effect on glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, and energy metabolism in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes. Oct 1999;48(10):2045-2051.
- Biewenga GP, Haenen GR, Bast A. The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. General pharmacology. Sep 1997;29(3):315-331.
- Packer L. Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov 17 1994;738:257-264.
- Shinto L, Quinn J, Montine T, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38(1):111-120.
- Maczurek A, Hager K, Kenklies M, et al. Lipoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Advanced drug delivery reviews. Oct-Nov 2008;60(13-14):1463-1470.
- Sauer J, Tabet N, Howard R. Alpha lipoic acid for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD004244.
CoQ10 is a key component of the mitochondrial electron chain, acting as an electron carrier in the lipid phase of the mitochondrial membrane, producing energy. CoQ10 is essential for ATP production. It is present in cell membranes at high concentrations, acting as an antioxidant scavenger of free radicals and taking part in regeneration of other key antioxidants such as tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbate (vitamin C). CoQ10 may prevent initiation and propagation of lipid peroxidation in plasma lipoprotein biological membranes. Thus, CoQ10 prevents LDL oxidation, indicating a potential role reducing risk of cardiovascular disease.
Digestive Enzyme Blend
Enzymes are essential to many body functions. Digestive enzymes are secreted along the gastrointestinal tract and aid in breaking down food, so the nutrients are easily absorbed into the bloodstream. We have included lipase, amylase, lactase and cellulose to assist the digestive process.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an essential nutrient that functions through cell membranes, in which it is anchored by phospholipid molecules. EPA supports heart health by decreasing blood viscosity and platelet aggregation.1 Low levels of omega 3 fatty acid profiles are frequent in those with psychological disorders2-4 and evidence in the literature supports a role for supplementation in promoting emotional balance and enhancing mood.5,6 EPA has also been demonstrated to support a healthy memory and cognition. In a recent analysis on the effects of 10 randomized controlled trials on omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, improvements in attention, processing speed and immediate recall were observed in subjects with cognitive impairment with no dementia.7
- Terano T, Hirai A, Hamazaki T, et al. Effect of oral administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet function, blood viscosity and red cell deformability in healthy human subjects. Atherosclerosis. Mar 1983;46(3):321-331.
- Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study. Nutrition journal. 2008;7:8.
- Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln JR. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. Feb 15 2008;32(2):568-575.
- Baghai TC, Varallo-Bedarida G, Born C, et al. Major depressive disorder is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and low Omega-3 Index. J Clin Psychiatry. Sep 2011;72(9):1242-1247.
- Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Sep 2007;12(3):207-227.
- Hegarty B, Parker G. Fish oil as a management component for mood disorders - an evolving signal. Current opinion in psychiatry. Jan 2013;26(1):33-40.
- Mazereeuw G, Lanctot KL, Chau SA, Swardfager W, Herrmann N. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging. Jul 2012;33(7):1482 e1417-1429.
DHA is thought to be important in neural function and plays a key role in the structure of synaptic membranes1 and has been shown to improve memory.2
- Wainwright P. Nutrition and behaviour: the role of n-3 fatty acids in cognitive function. Br J Nutr. Apr 2000;83(4):337-339.
- Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Sugioka K, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats. Neuroscience. 1999;93(1):237-241.
Brain and Memory Power Boost
This phospholipid nutrient is present in all our cells and is an essential building block for cell membranes, including those of the mitochondria.1-3 It is most concentrated in the brain, where it is crucial for information transfer between nerve cells at the synapses. PS is also important in other nerve cell functions including maintaining the cellular internal environment, signal transduction of messages from outside to inside the cells, release of nerve transmitters and other substances from cells, cell-cell communication, and cell growth regulation.2-5 PS has a variety of structural and functional roles related to cell membranes, including facilitating membrane protein functions, maintaining cell receptors for nerve transmitters, nerve growth factor and other messenger substances, and packaging neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin into membrane vesicles for subsequent release into the synapses.2-5 Randomized, controlled clinical research trials demonstrate that PS promotes mental focus, learning, and other cognitive functions. PS especially can enhance memory for words, faces, names, and numbers, and supports brain health across the lifespan.6-11
- Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, others. Molecular Biology of The Cell. 2008;Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, New York.
- Kidd PM. Altern. Med. Rev. 1996;1:70-84.
- Shiao YJ, Lupo G, Vance JE. J. Biol. Chem. 1995;270(19):11190-11198.
- Pedata F, Giovanelli L, Spignoli G, others. Neurobiol. Aging 1985;6:337-339.
- Tsakiris S, Deliconstantinos G. Biochem. J. 1984;220:301-307.
- Amaducci L, SMID Group. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1988;24(1):130-134.
- Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, others. Aging (Milano) 1993;5(2):123-133.
- Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, others. Neurology 1991;41:644-649.
- Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28(1):61-66.
- Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, others. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2010;47:246-255.
- Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, others. Acta Psychr. Scand. 1990;81:265-270.
This nutrient is intrinsic to the body's metabolism and essential for normal mitochondrial function in all our cells.1 It facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, thereby promoting efficient cellular energy production and indirectly bolstering antioxidant defense.2 It provides acetyl groups that are involved in the regulation of gene activity and the functioning of certain enzymes and other proteins. The brain also can use such acetyl groups to make acetylcholine, a key nerve transmitter.3 Clinical trials suggest ALC can be used by itself4-7 or in combination with other nutrients8 to support cognition, mood and other nervous system functions.4-8
- Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, others. Molecular Biology of The Cell. 2008;Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, New York.
- Rosca MG, Lemieux H, Hoppel CL. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2009;61:1332-1342.
- Ando S, Tadenuma T, Tanaka Y, others. J. Neurosci. Res. 2001;66:266-271.
- Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2003;18(2):61-71.
- Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, others. Neurology 1996;47(3):705-711.
- Salvioli G, Neri M. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1994;20(4):169-176.
- Brooks JO 3rd, Yesavage JA, Carta A, Bravi D. Int. Psychogeriatr. 1998;10(2):193-203.
- Chan A, Remington R, Kotyla E, others. J Nutr Health Aging 2010;14(3):224-230.
This is a well-utilized form of l-cysteine, an amino acid that contains sulfur and is the major antioxidant circulating in our blood.1 L-cysteine is also needed to produce glutathione, a very powerful antioxidant and metabolic regulator. It not stable as a dietary supplement, but NAC is stable and is an effective substitute for this important nutrient. Toxins and other stressors tend to deplete the body's l-cysteine and glutathione stores, and supplementing with NAC can effectively replete blood cysteine and cell glutathione levels.2-4 Clinical trials validate NAC's versatile support for cognition and other higher brain functions,5-7 also for behavioral challenges including coping with a variety of cravings.8
- Droge W. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B 2005;360:2355-2372.
- Atkuri KR, Mantovani JJ, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 2007;7:355-359.
- Heard KJ. New Engl. J. Med. 2008;359:285-292.
- Millea PJ. Am. Fam. Physician 2009;80:265-269.
- Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M. J Psychiatr. Neurosci. 2011;36:78-86.
- Badaloo A, Reid M, Forrester T, others. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002;76:646-652.
- Hoffer ME, Balaban C, Slade MD, Tsao JW, Hoffer B. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54163.
- Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, others. Am. J. Psychiatry 2012;169(8):805-812.
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)
This nutrient is also built into the body's metabolism and like ALC is also important for energy production by the mitochondria in our cells.1,2 Being an essential cofactor for 3 major energy-producing enzymes makes ALA integral to all cell energy generation.2 As a dietary supplement ALA also has powerful antioxidant capacity, so powerful that it can help the body conserve endogenous antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione.1,2 ALA has also proven valuable for the effective regulation of blood sugar levels, which is crucial for healthy brain function.3 Preliminary evidence suggests ALA may support cognitive health as we age.4,5
- Packer L, Cadenas E. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2011;48(1):26-32.
- Long J, Gao F, Tong L, others. Neurochem. Res. 2009; 34(4):755-763.
- Gomes MB, Negrato CA. Diabetol. Metab. Syndr. 2014;6:80 (18 pages)
- Maczurek A, Hager K, Kenklies M, others. Adv. Drug. Deliv. Rev. 2008;60(13-14):1463-1470.
- Sancheti H, Kanamori K, Patil I, others. J. Cerebral Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:288-296.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE)
This extract from the leaf of the Ginkgo biloba tree, native to China, is most recognized for its brain supportive and antioxidant properties, and for its ability to enhance the healthy circulation.1,2 Authentic GBE are standardized to contain 24% flavonol glycosides and 6% terpene compounds including ginkgolides and bilobalides.1 These compounds have versatile antioxidant and other protective properties.1,2 Supplementation with GBE can protect cell membranes from free radical-associated lipid peroxidation and neurons from oxidative damage.3,4 Ginkgo biloba’s ability to improve blood flow to both the brain and the peripheral circulation underlie much of its clinical benefit.5 Ginkgo has been shown to enhance cognition in healthy individuals6-10 as well as those with age related cognitive impairment.11-13 Furthermore, gingko biloba has been shown to improve working memory independently10,14 and when combined with vinpocetine.15
- DeFeudis FV, Drieu K. Current Drug Targets 2000;1(1):25-58.
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- Bastianetto S, Ramassamy C, Dore S, others. European Journal Neurosci. 2000;12(6):1882-1890.
- Mashayekh A, Pham DL, Yousem DM, others. Neuroradiology 2011;53(3):185-191.
- Elsabagh S, Hartley DE, Ali O, others. Psychopharmacology 2005;179(2):437-446.
- Kennedy DO, Jackson PA, Haskell CF, others. Human Psychopharmacology 2007;22(8):559-566.
- Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Psychopharmacology 2000;151(4):416-423.
- Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. Phytotherapy Research 1999;13(5):408-415.
- Stough C, Clarke J, Lloyd J, Nathan PJ. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;4(2):131-134.
- Mazza M, Capuano A, Bria P, Mazza S. Eur. J. Neurology 2006;13(9):981-985.
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- Brondino N, De Silvestri A, Re S, others. Evidence Based Compl. Altern. Med. 2013;Article ID 915691, 11 pages.
- Silberstein RB, Pipingas A, Song J, others. Evidence Based Compl. Altern. Med. 2011;Article ID 164139, 10 pages.
- Polich J, Gloria R. Human Psychopharmacology 2001;16(5):409-416.
This is an alkaloid compound prepared from the periwinkle plant (Vinca minor).1 It promotes blood vessel dilation to support healthy blood flow.2 VINPO also might promote blood flow by improving the flexibility of red blood cells and thereby allowing them to better traverse small blood vessels.3 Additionally, VINPO may lower platelet aggregation tendency in the circulating blood.4 VINPO has been used for decades to support circulatory5 and cognitive health.6 Brain imaging studies using PET (Positron Emission Tomography) demonstrate VINPO is rapidly taken up into the brain following oral dosing.7 Preliminary evidence indicates VINPO also supports nerve cell adaptability in the brain ("plasticity").8 In a clinical trial that combined vinpocetine with Ginkgo Biloba Extract, healthy individuals showed faster information processing capacity.9
- Nicholson CD. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 1990;101(2):147-159.
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- Polich J, Gloria R. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 2001;16(5):409-416.
Huperzine A (HUPA)
Extracted from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata (club moss), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, this alkaloid likely functions by improving acetylcholine's actions in the brain.1-3 Acetylcholine plays a central role in the brain's cognitive processes.4 Recent research indicates HUPA also can have positive effects on the mitochondria of nerve cells,5 and can enhance the action of nerve growth factor, a protein that helps regulate healthy nerve cell renewal.6 HUPA also can help guard certain brain circuits against potential problems from overstimulation via their NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors.7 Clinical trial findings suggest HUPA supports healthy cognitive function in older persons.5,8,9
- Skolnick AA. JAMA 1997;277(10):776.
- Pepping J. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2000;57(6):530, 533-534.
- Ashani Y, Peggins JO 3rd, Doctor BP. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1992;184(2):719-726.
- Amenta F, Tayebati SK. Curr. Medicinal Chem. 2008;15:488-498.
- Qian ZM, Ke Y. Frontiers Aging Neurosci. 2014;6(Article 216):6 pages.
- Tang LL, Wang R, Tang XC. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2005;26(6):673-678.
- Wang XD, Zhang JM, Yang HH, Hu GY. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 1999;20(1):31-35.
- Yang G, Wang Y, Tian J, Liu JP. PLoS ONE 2013;8(9):e74916, 8 pages.
- Xing SH, Zhu CX, Zhang R, An L. Evidence Based Compl. Altern. Med. 2014;Article ID 363985, 10 pages.